In R v Spratt (1990) the accused fired his air gun from an open window without thinking that there might be others in the vicinity, the thought never occurred to him. Two of the bullets that were fired from the air gun hit a young girl who was playing in the courtyard and the accused was charged with causing actual bodily harm (ABH) as per s47 of the Offences Against Person Act (1861). The question before the court was whether a) the accused intended to cause actual bodily harm or b) whether his conduct was so reckless that intention could be implied. The accused pleaded guilty and was sentenced. The accused appealed the sentence.
On appeal, the prosecution relied on the Caldwell test and sought to obtain a conviction on the grounds that the accused had either not given any thought to the possibility of there being any such risk or had recognized that there was some risk involved but had nonetheless gone on to commit the act. His conviction was quashed, and the judge decided that in order to convict for Caldwell recklessness the accused must have some appreciation of the risk.
It is clear that the Caldwell test is too broad and widens the scope of liability and the judge in R v Spratt (1990) recognizing the dangers of the Caldwell test has tried to limit or restrict its scope by looking at the accused’s state of mind at the time he committed the act.
Copyright © 2018 by Dyarne Ward